The 220X has been undergoing testing at JCB's quarry proving grounds for more than 12 months, said the company.
"The development of the first hydrogen fuelled excavator is very exciting as we strive towards a zero carbon world," said JCB chairman Lord Bamford.
Last year, JCB went into full production with the construction industry's first fully electric mini excavator, the 19C-1E. JCB has also extended electric technology to its Teletruk telescopic forklift range with the launch of an electric model, the JCB 30-19E.
Lord Bamford's son Jo Bamford spent 14 years at JCB before moving into the hydrogen sector, setting up Ryse Hydrogen and then buying Northern Ireland bus giant Wrightbus, and has been working on supplying hydrogen double-decker buses to cities such as London and Aberdeen.
Lord Bamford and his son spent two years working on the development of the 220X.